November 12, 2006
How often do you look closely at how you are playing gypsy jazz guitar? Whenever I learn a new guitar technique I look very closely to see that I have got it right before I start regular practice, because regular practice programmes in the technique – bad technique gets programmed in just as easily as good. Gypsy jazz guitar has a number of fundamental techniques which have to be programmed in absolutely correctly otherwise huge problems emerge later when you try to use them at fast tempos or for a whole gig. The plectrum rest stroke (of which more soon) and the loose wrist (not arm) action for rhythm guitar are quite difficult to learn intially and there is considerable scope for error. Sometimes I play in front of a large mirror to check my technique but recently I have been using a video camera which is more useful because you can look at the replayed images with full concentration. I mounted the camera on a tripod and turned the viewing screen round so it was facing me, it was easy to set up and use.
I learnt a lot from looking at a few minutes of clips – I still move my forearm more than I should when playing rhythm guitar but this only happens at high tempos, I angle my plectrum correctly for rest strokes on the upper strings but don’t have enough angle on the lower strings (which is a counterintuitive finding) – all things that I can easily correct before I do more practice but which I wouldn’t have otherwise noticed. I recommend a session of video feedback every couple of months to check for creeping bad habits – but I won’t be posting mine on YouTube!
October 26, 2006
Thinking about my post on gypsy jazz scales it seemed to me that it would be better if I could produce examples of arpeggio licks for readers to try. After a little fiddling around here is my first one (as described in the earlier post). It is simply the notes of a C major triad (or any other major triad if you slide it up and down the fretboard) with additional notes a semi-tone below each. The numbers show the order in which the notes should be played.
You could play this lick in a number of different rhythms and articulations. Each note could be one beat so the lick spreads across 2 bars, or each note could by a swung quaver in which case it would fit into one bar. Each note could be picked, or just the first note of each pair and then hammer-on the second. I find it easiest to play this with just the first two fingers of my left hand, as Django would have done.
You can also try starting on the triad note (i.e. number 2 in the diagram) going down a semitone and then back up to the triad note again, probably with a triplet rhythm.
Notice how the triad notes in this lick are the top four notes of a straightforward C major bar chord:
October 26, 2006
One interesting feature of writing a blog is that you get information about the search terms which people have used to get to your site. One of the most popular search combinations that finds this site is ‘gypsy jazz scales’ so I thought I had better post my view on this subject:
There are no scales in gypsy jazz
Of course without qualification this might seem a little extreme but I am sure that if all novice gypsy jazz guitarists started from this premise then they would get going a lot faster, I know that I would have saved a lot of time learning any sort of jazz guitar style if I had initially ignored scales but it is especially relevant to gypsy jazz guitar.
If one looks at the general pattern of notes played in gypsy jazz the overwhelming pattern is of arpeggios with chromatic decoration – by that I mean the standard arpeggio notes of a chord, e.g. C E G for a C major chord, with other notes just above and below them.
Take a very common, and great sounding, Django lick which just consists of the three note of a major arpeggio (or more strictly major triad) and the notes a semitone below each of these – B C, Eb E, F sharp G, B C – that sounds like authentic gypsy jazz doesn’t it? It is very easy to see how this relates to the C major chord on the fretboard especially if you start on the B at the 9th fret on the D string and so it is very easy to see when you might use that lick simply by playing through the chords of the tune. If instead you analysed these notes in terms of a scale you would get – root, minor third, major third, flattened fifth, perfect fifth, major seventh – which doesn’t make any sense at all.
So my advice to any gypsy jazz guitarist just starting out is to ignore scales and practice lots of arpeggios. The triads – root, third and fifth are a good starting point and then later add major sixths (sevenths don’t feature much in gypsy jazz, especially minor and major sevenths). You have to be careful how you choose to play the arpeggios, the temptation on the guitar is always to start on the bottom string and work across the strings but in gypsy jazz many arpeggios in solos will start on higher strings and go up and down the fretboard rather than across. For this reason it is best to get one of the excellent tuition books that are available and start from there. At the moment I am getting a lot of use out of Robin Nolan’s Essential Gypsy Jazz Licks which contains many of the most important decorated arpeggio patterns but I will be reviewing some alternatives to that on the site soon.
September 22, 2006
In my first discussion of the differences between playing the guitar and clarinet my conclusions seemed to be that in many ways the guitar was physically easier to play but more difficult to produce coherent improvisations simply because it was easier to play, for example semitone modulations in a tune could be accommodated with no more consideration than sliding up or down a fret. Some further time playing the clarinet has made me revise this assessment to conclude that it is more difficult to play inventive and well-structured improvisations on the guitar simply because it is more difficult to play.
The reason for this difficulty is the duplication of notes on the guitar fretboard. On a clarinet if I want to play a middle C there is only one possible fingering so there is an indivisible link between the sound of middle C and that fingering, and this can be reinforced by many different practice techniques. If I had perfect pitch (which I don’t have by a distance of many light years) then with some practice I could play any note on the clarinet that I heard without having to worry about the fingerings (there are a few alternative fingerings on the bottom keys but we can ignore that for the moment).
On a guitar there are many ways to play a middle C. 1st fret on the B string, 5th fret on the G string, 10th fret on the D string and 15th fret on the A string. Each of those notes could be fretted using one of four left hand fingers giving a total of 16 different fingerings! Mick Goodrick, in his thoughtful book The Advancing Guitarist, has likened playing the guitar to playing 6 chromatic keyboards offset to each other by intervals of a fifth except of course between the G and B string when it is a fourth. This makes it very difficult to establish any clear link between the pitch of a note and its fingering on the guitar and may account for much of the mind-numbingly boring jazz guitar that is played using a limited repertoire of licks in fixed patterns based on strict positional (i.e. across the fretboard rather than up and down it) playing.
Interestingly the techniques used in gypsy jazz guitar seem to get round this problem by using a limited range of strings and fingerings because the techniques are much more based on movement up and down the fretboard rather than across it. We know that Django could only use two of his left hand fingers and most current players seem to use only three for the vast majority of time so that immediately reduces the fingering possibilities by at least 25%. On the acoustic gypsy jazz guitar many notes, though theoretically possible such as a middle C on the 15th fret of the A string, are not practical either through lack of access to the fretboard or more likely insufficient volume to cut through the sound of the rhythm guitar. This has lead to techniques with big movements up and down the fretboard using usually the highest available string for the note required which gives far more chance of establishing a firm relationship between that note and its fingering. Perhaps this is why much gypsy jazz guitar sounds so much more structured and purposeful than many fully electric jazz guitar recordings?
One area where the guitar holds a massive advantage over the clarinet, or any other wind instrument, is the relationship between relative pitch of notes and their fingering. On the guitar I know that if I play one note on any string and another note two frets higher on the string above (with the exception of the G/B string combination) then those notes will produce an interval of a perfect fifth. On the clarinet there is no clear relationship between fingering and interval, especially when moving between the upper and lower registers which overblows by a twelfth rather than the octave that saxophones and flutes do. I am not sure of guitarists can take full advantage of this property when playing at fast tempos but when listening to gypsy jazz guitarists playing ballads you can often hear them ‘stretching’ for a note which they know is there to be played but which lies outside any usual pattern that they use. A great example of this is the beginning of Lolo Meier’s solo on ‘I surrender dear’ where he takes a little motif and shifts the second note of the repetition of the motif up to accommodate the underlying chord change and to construct a very melodic phrase.
September 22, 2006
We are on holiday in France for a couple of weeks and there wasn’t room to bring a guitar (nor any necessity since I don’t have a gig immediately on our return) so I brought my clarinet instead. I had some classical training on the clarinet as a teenager but have not played it consistently since, a period of some 30 years, and have never developed a jazz vocabulary on it. Although I haven’t made much progress during this short holiday the process has revealed some interesting analogies and differences with playing guitar.
The first and most obvious difference is the sheer physicality of playing a wind instrument. Picking up the clarinet again after such a long absence revealed the effort of making any sound apart from a squeak or a wheeze. Even with weak reeds I can only play it for a maximum of 15 minutes without my lip and palatal muscles reaching overload failure, and of course the length of every phrase is dependent on the amount of breath I have. This contrasts strongly with the relative ease that sound can be produced from a guitar, the length of time it can be played and the lack of any physical restraint on the length of phrase. This difference can produce some musical deficiencies in guitarists – because they don’t have to work hard for every note they can sometimes play too many notes without much musical direction. Glaring examples of this occurred when guitarists translated bebop phrases onto the fully electric guitar with its relatively flat sound due to lack of upper harmonics (a function of flat wound strings and amplifiers with a mid-range bias). There are many very dull recordings of guitarists running through endless bebop licks with no breaks between them, I won’t name the culprits as 75% of jazz guitar CDs exhibit this. I think that gypsy jazz guitar playing has less tendency to this because the acoustic nature of the instruments, with relatively high string action and thick heavy plectra, do make it more of a physical effort to play, and the arpeggiated nature of many gypsy jazz phrases ensures a rapid movement up and down the fretboard and a phrase has to end due to the lack of any further higher or lower notes.
I have been learning the Django tune ‘Daphne’ on the clarinet which has an A section in the key of E major (when transposed for a Bb instrument such as the clarinet) and a B section a semitone higher in F major. On the guitar the transition between the A and B sections can be very simple – just slide up a fret with the same fingering for most of the tune and any improvisation. On the clarinet it is very different, only two notes are common to both scales (E and A) so the fingering of five notes in the scale have to change with the transition. The E major and F major scales feel completely different to play, the E major scale uses lots of side keys to sharpen the notes whereas the F major scale is the ‘natural’ scale of the Bb clarinet so doesn’t use any side keys, just the open fingerholes. The semitone shift upwards or downwards is a powerful musical device which can be readily perceived by almost any listener whether they have any musical training or not, it give the music a real lift. However the difference in feel on the guitar is not very great if one just shifts up a fret. Perhaps a better way to approach fingering these sections would be to use the same finger on the same fret for the common notes E and A and move the other notes. This should produce the same sensation as the clarinet fingering – I will try it out when I next have a guitar in my hands.
My final observation, at the moment, is the way in which one’s listening focus changes when playing a different instrument. One might imagine that one would listen to music in an even-handed sort of way giving equal attention to all the instruments, or the ensemble as a whole. In reality this is very rarely the case and each listener will have a very different focus when listening to music. For people who don’t play instruments this focus will presumably be selected by sounds that they have found to be to their liking in the past. In many ways the best way to listen to a piece of music might be as a completely naïve listener who cannot even distinguish between the sounds of different instruments – in that way the whole ensemble could be appreciated without any preconceived focus. Unfortunately for instrumentalists listening to music often occurs in a highly focussed and rather conscious manner listening to the instrument which one plays to see what the player is ‘doing’. It was very interesting for me to see how quickly this focus can shift. When listening to gypsy jazz recordings I generally focus on the guitars, and often the rhythm guitar since that is my predominant mode of playing. After only 2 days of playing scales on the clarinet I found myself picking out the clarinet on any gypsy jazz recording on which it is present and hearing nuances of phrasing and tone that I hadn’t perceived before. It has made me even more impressed by some modern gypsy jazz clarinettists especially Andre Donni on Lolo Meier’s Hondarribia recording.
August 21, 2006
I’m not sure if the Django ‘shuffle’ is its official name but everyone will have heard it on Django Reinhardt recordings – Django takes a solo and when he has finished he starts playing a rhythm behind the next soloist (often Stephane Grapelli) which lifts the whole band and feels as though the pace has suddenly accelerated though the actual time remains steady.
It has taken me a while, and Robin Nolan’s books, to realise what is happening here. The rhythm is still the straight four beats to the bar with accents on the second and fourth beats but instead of two upstrokes a bar, after the second and fourth beats, there are upstrokes after every beat. The difficulty of playing this rhthym, and it does seem very difficult, is to keep the upstrokes light on damped strings whilst letting the notes ring a bit on the first and third beats and whilst putting a strong accent on the second and fourth beats. If any of these elements goes awry, especially if you lose the emphasis on the second and fourth beats, all the swing is lost and it sounds dreadful.
I have found it a little like the patting your head whilst making circles on your tummy type of activity – I can hold it together for a while but then it unravels and is hard to get back again without stopping. I have found that switching my attention between the three elements, focussing on one element at a time, helps to keep it together but it is going to need a lot more practice. One problem I have encountered is the plectrum moving around and being unable to correct this. I use the fabulous Wegen picks favoured by many gypsy jazz guitarists which have a depression for the thumb and deep ridges on either side so there shouldn’t be too much problem with grip. What I think happens with almost all players is that the plectrum is always moving around but we unconsciously rearrange it in our fingers, however the only usual gaps in gypsy jazz rhythm are the two spaces a bar where there aren’t upstrokes and these disappear in the Django shuffle.
One unexpected benefit of practising this rhythm is that when I switch back to standard rhythm it all sounds more swingy than before.
August 4, 2006
Today I was practising rhythm guitar with some of Robin Nolan’s playalongs. I was looking at a different harmonisation of Dark Eyes. The chord shapes that I have been using have an A on the 6th string for both the A7 and Dm chords which inadvertently creates a dominant pedal over the first six bars of every chorus whereas we would prefer to reserve such a pedal for occasional use near the climax of a solo. The chord shapes in Robin Nolan’s book are musically much better and also have less of a finger stretch so I won’t wear my left hand out so much during a gig.
The playalong has two Dark Eyes tracks – one at 194 beats per minute and the other at 240 beats per minute. I could manage to play in tempo with both but I noticed that there was a clear threshold between the two. At 194 bpm I could keep in tempo very easily, even with some loose technique such as elbow movement of the right arm. At 240 bpm I could only keep in tempo by using the best technique I have – all movement from the right wrist, no unnecessary movement outside the range of the strings etc. I don’t know whether everyone finds the same thing at around these tempos or whether everyone has a different tempo threshold – what is important is that everyone should find their threshold and practice a lot above it to keep their technique tight and gig-ready.
August 4, 2006
Now we know how many times during a gig we rhythm guitarists have to tense and release our fretting hand it makes sense to do this with as little effort as possible, so we can still be fresh at the end of the evening and not drag the tempos down. Sometimes, especially on high profile gigs, I find that my left hand is beginning to form a death grip around the guitar neck and the bounce is disappearing from my rhythm. I have now developed a warm-up exercise that gives me great feedback about how much (or little) pressure I do need to exert on the fretboard to play the notes.
I start off by fingering a chord around the fifth or sixth fret (such a Bb maj6/9) but I don’t press down hard enough to make contact with the fretboard. I then start playing a regular four to the bar rhythm pattern with my right hand to produce a rhythmic sound without any pitch. I then slowly increase the presure in my fretting fingers until notes begin to sound on the first and third beat of each bar. I don’t mind if this is rather irregular at first because I am trying to find the minimal amount of pressure that will sound each note in the chord so I will oscillate around the sounding/non-sounding threshold initially. Once I have the first and third beats sounding then I add the shorter louder second and fourth beats. This gives my fingers the feedback they need to know what is the minimal amount of pressure required to produce the sound of the chord.
Of course this pressure varies at different points along the fretboard so you might want to try it at lower and higher frets. I also stop during practice to do this exercise again to make sure that tensions in my left hand haven’t crept up without my notice. Obviously one can’t do that on a gig but my alternative strategy for that environment is to focus on listening to the upstrokes and make sure that they don’t have any musical pitch – indicating that I have released the tension enough at that point.
July 25, 2006
We went on a week’s holiday recently. Usually I don’t take a guitar because part of the holiday experience is to forget about the things we do all the rest of the year, this time I had to take one because I had a gig four days after we returned and I needed to keep in shape.
This got me thinking about the physical nature of playing gypsy jazz rhythm guitar. In a usual gig we will play at least 12 tunes. Each tune is generally 32 bars long and we play the form around 8 times a tune with solos. Each bar has four beats (except for waltzes of course). If you add all that up it gives about 12,500 beats in a gig! so a rhythm guitarist is tensing and releasing his fretting fingers 12,500 times and playing around 15,000 plectrum strokes with the other hand (because there are at least a couple of upstrokes a bar). The only way to prepare for that sort of feat is to put in a lot of regular practice before the gig!
June 9, 2006
Yesterday we played a gig that was essentially providing background music at a summer cocktail party. Although we were playing outside we were on a stone terrace with a short wall around us and some canvas canopies overhead. We had taken our usual electro-acoustic guitars and amplifiers with us but before we unpacked those we tried out our new Gitane guitars without any amplification – it sounded perfect! The guitars were loud enough even outdoors and so we played the whole gig without amplifiers (the double bass player as well). The experience of playing totally acoustically was very refreshing and everyone in the band really enjoyed it – we have resolved to find more gigs where we can do this.
Later we played another gig in a noisy wine bar and had to use our old guitars and amplifiers. When we first picked up the guitars they felt very dead and lifeless but with an enthusiastic audience we still enjoyed the gig, though we did find that 4 hours of full-on gypsy jazz playing in a day was a little hard on the fingers.